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Examining the Evidence

Additional Resources

Reference Center > Additional Resources

The FORENSICS: Examining the Evidence website promotes an understanding of the tools to weigh the application of scientific methodologies and human interpretation in forensic science processes. In addition to the information throughout the site, below is a list of additional resources that support further understanding of the forensic science process as it relates to the legal system.

Relevant Court Cases

A 2011 landmark case addressing Confrontation Clause rights.

A 1993 landmark case determining the standard for admitting expert testimony in federal courts.

A 1923 landmark case on admissibility of evidence.

A 2009 landmark case regarding the Confrontation Clause.

A 2002 case example of a successful challenge to the admissibility of fingerprints. 

A 2012 landmark case concerning the Confrontation Clause.


Scientific Working Groups

For more than 20 years, several federal agencies have supported the efforts of various scientific working groups, often referred to as SWGs, for the advancement of forensic standards and techniques. These multidisciplinary groups assist in developing standards and guidelines and improve communications throughout their respective disciplines. Please note that clicking on the items below will take you away from the FORENSICS: Examining the Evidence website.


Additional Forensic Science Resources

National Academy of Sciences findings on a study of forensic science.

Executive Summary, Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward, 2009  is reprinted with permission by the National Academy of Sciences, Courtesy of the National Academies Press, Washington, D.C. The full report can be found at http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=12589

Reference material designed to assist trainers and administrators in developing training programs for crime scene investigators.

A resource for increasing the understanding of the science of DNA and its application in the courtroom.

Four of the most promising new techniques for detecting and distinguishing trace evidence are described.


A Simplified Guide To Forensic Science

Basic forensic science education from the National Forensic Science Technology Center.

CSI Effect Theory: That’s television. This is a courtroom.

An interactive website on the “CSI effect” that popular TV programs may be having on today’s juries.

Communication Skills, Report Writing, and Courtroom Testimony for Forensic Analysts

NIJ training on Communication Skills for Forensic Analysts.

Originally published by the National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice

International Association for Bloodstain Pattern Analysts

The IABPA promotes education, establishes training standards and encourages research in the field of bloodstain pattern analysis.

National Institute of Justice Training

NIJ sponsors a variety of courses, both online and in a classroom, for criminal justice professionals.

Originally published by the National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice


Print Resources

Evidentiary Foundations, Edward J. Imwinkelried

Covering all major evidentiary doctrines, the text provides a blueprint for introduction of evidence at trial.

Imwinkelried, Edward J. “Evidentiary Foundations”, Eighth Edition, Matthew Bender & Co, Philadelphia, PA (2012).

Forensic DNA Typing – Biology, Technology, and Genetics of STR Markers, John M. Butler

A widely used textbook by DNA analysts.

Butler, John M. “Forensic DNA Typing – Biology, Technology, and Genetics of STR Markers”, Second Edition, Elsevier Academic Press, Burlington, MA (2005).

Justice and Science: Trials and Triumphs of DNA Evidence, George (Woody) Clarke

In his memoir, Clarke chronicles his experiences in some of the most disturbing and notorious sexual assault and murder court cases in California.

Clarke, George “Woody”. “Justice and Science: Trials and Triumphs of DNA Evidence”, Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, NJ (2007).

The forensic confirmation bias: Problems, perspectives, and proposed solutions, Saul M. Kassin, Itiel E. Dror, and Jeff Kukucka

This article discusses bias in the forensic laboratory and its influence in the courts.

Kassin, S. M., Dror, I. E., & Kukucka, J. “The forensic confirmation bias: Problems, perspectives, and proposed solutions”, Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 2 (1), 42-52. (2013).